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Word Description
Rack and Pinion Steering Many modern cars use rack and pinion steering mechanisms, where the steering wheel turns the pinion gear; the pinion moves the rack, which is a linear gear that meshes with the pinion, converting circular motion into linear motion along the transverse axis of the car (side to side motion). This motion applies steering torque to the swivel pin ball joints that replaced previously used kingpins of the stub axle of the steered wheels via tie rods and a short lever arm called the steering arm. The rack and pinion design has the advantages of a large degree of feedback and direct steering "feel". A disadvantage is that it is not adjustable, so that when it does wear and develop lash, the only cure is replacement.
Rod End A rod end bearing, also known as a heim joint, is a mechanical articulating joint. Such joints are used on the ends of control rods, steering links, tie rods, or anywhere a precision articulating joint is required. A ball swivel with an opening through which a bolt or other attaching hardware may pass is pressed into a circular casing with a threaded shaft attached. The threaded portion may be either male or female.
Roll Center Height (RCH) This is important to body roll and to front to rear roll stiffness distribution. However, the roll stiffness distribution in most cars is set more by the anti-roll bars than the RCH. The height of the roll center is related to the amount of jacking forces experienced.
Roll Couple Percentage Roll couple percentage is the effective wheel rates, in roll, of each axle of the vehicle just as a ratio of the vehicle's total roll rate. Roll Couple Percentage is critical in accurately balancing the handling of a vehicle. It is commonly adjusted through the use of anti-roll bars, but can also be changed through the use of different springs. A vehicle with a roll couple percentage of 70% will transfer 70% of its sprung weight transfer at the front of the vehicle during cornering. This is also commonly known as "Total Lateral Load Transfer Distribution" or "TLLTD".